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USB is an industry standard, ‘user-friendly’ method of transferring data between a host device (such as a computer) and a peripheral device (for example, a mouse). To most computer users, the system simply allows the use of various devices by attaching them via a USB port.
How does data transfer between devices?
USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. A ‘bus’ within a PC is a collection of wires that transfer data between components inside the computer, or between the computer and its peripheral devices, much as an electronic busbar distributes power throughout certain large, power-hungry environments such as factories and data centres.
Before the launch of USB, each peripheral device was attached to a computer with its own individually shaped port. As the number of peripheral devices increased over the years, a new standardised means of transferring data between the main host and a range of devices was sought. This ultimately resulted in the development of USB.
How is data sent across USB?
When a peripheral device is attached via USB, the host computer will detect what kind of device it is and automatically load a driver that allows the device to function.
Data is transferred between the two devices in small amounts known as ‘packets’. A set number of bytes (a unit of digital information) is transmitted with each packet.
Other information is also sent, including:
· the source of the data
· the destination of the data
· the length of the data
· details of any errors that have been detected
How many types of data transfer that can occur?
1. Interrupt transfer.
Peripheral devices such as keyboards and mice use this type of data message to send smaller amounts of data. Such transfers are often used for less frequent but important requests. The devices generate the requests, though they must wait for the host to inquire about the specific data the remote device needs. Such requests are guaranteed to be reattempted if the first transfer fails. These transfers will also let you know about any changes to the status of the device.
2. Bulk transfer.
Used by printers and digital scanners for large amounts of data, this type of transfer is low-priority and not time-critical. The transfer will slow down if the host computer has a number of USB devices connected.
3. Isochronous transfer.
Audio, video and other real-time data uses isochronous transfer. Errors can occur during the transfer, though the transfer will not be interrupted in order to resend the packets. However, such transfers usually involve situations where the accuracy of the data is not critical, such as audio elements that may not be picked up by the listener. Missing these elements is preferable to retrying data, which could result in glitching audio.
4. Control transfer.
This type of data transfer is used to configure and control a USB device. The host sends a request to the device and the data transfer follows. Control transfers are also used to check status. Only one control request is handled at any one time.
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Shenzhen KingSpec Electronics Technology Co., Ltd. was established in 2007. KingSpec factory has the abilities of hardware design and development, manufacture and wholesale. KingSpec has been entitled as “National High-tech Enterprise” by Chinese Governments yearly. If you are looking for a USB manufacturer, please don’t hesitate to contact us!